It’s a little known fact, but unittest actually has an API.

This isn’t the API that you deal with when you write tests, but rather an API that unittest itself uses when running tests. You could think of it as two interfaces: one for test frameworks and one for test authors. Both APIs are real, but both are poorly documented and often misunderstood or abused.


An instance of TestCase represents a single test. What you think of as a single test is up to you, but most of the time it’s a unit test.

A TestCase object must provide the following methods.

This first list of methods can be thought of as a single interface, which these blog posts will call ITest given the lack of any better name.

A method that returns the number of test cases this represents. It should always return 1.
Calling this method actually runs the test. result is a TestResult object. run must call result.startTest(self) when it commences running the test and result.stopTest(self) when it is finished. Between these calls it must call a method on result to signal the result of the test. run must never raise an exception, and its return value is ignored. If result is not provided, the TestCase is obliged to make one.
Identical to run(result), provided for backwards compatibility.
Calling this method runs the test without collecting its results. It may raise exceptions. This method is rarely called by test frameworks.

The following methods are specific to individual test case objects. We call this interface ITestCase.

Should return a string that uniquely identifies the test. For Python tests, the fully-qualified Python name works well. The uniqueness of the id is not enforced.
Should return a string that describes the test. Many test frameworks use this value to display test results.
Should return a string that describes the test. Frequently the same as either shortDescription() or id(). Many test frameworks use this value to display test results.

There is also a second interface, one that matters to code that subclasses TestCase. We’ll deal with that in a later post.


A TestSuite represents nothing more or less than a bunch of tests.

A TestSuite must provide the ITest interface described above, with the differences that you would expect from something that represents many tests: countTestCases returns the number of tests in the suite; run runs many tests and thus calls result.startTest and kin many times over; debug is the same and can explode anywhere.

One difference is that must stop running tests as soon as it detects that result.shouldStop is true.

In addition, TestSuite implements the following interface, which I’m giving the completely arbitrary non-existent name of ITestSuite.

Takes an ITest and adds it to the suite.
Takes an iterable of ITests and adds them to the suite. Normally equivalent to [suite.addTest(test) for test in tests].
All test suites must be iterable. Iterating over a test suite yields ITests. These may differ from the ITests provided to addTest and addTests.

In later posts, I hope to document TestResult, the subclassing interface of TestCase and tell you exactly what I think about test loaders, test runners and the like.

I’m blogging this partly because I don’t know where else to write this up, but mostly because I need your help to make sure that I’m being clear and correct. Please comment with questions and corrections, and let me know if you find this at all helpful.